Archive for Salvation Army

The charism of the founder

Faces - BoothI have been asked over and over again why I joined TSA (the Salvation Army) and why I insist on remaining in TSA.

I remember sitting at WBC (William Booth College in London) at a lecture given by the leader of the methodists of England, he said that the only thing that gives a religious movement it’s right of existence is the “charism of the founder”. In other words, whatever it was that god gave William Booth that was different, that is the reason for TSA continued existence.

As I reflect on the question why TSA? I find myself reflecting on all those great things that was part of the early army.

100% Passion

William Booth had a calling, a vision to proclaim the kingdom of God. He did so not in a measured or controlled way, but he went all out, he held nothing back. I think this is at least one of the reasons the movement became so successful, Booths unrelenting, unbridled passion.

Pragmatism

The early army had a very anything goes and whatever works attitude. They where willing to try anything to make the good news heard. The importance here was not political correctness, doctrinal adherence or even dignity. Undignified, loud and raucous, TSA marched on not caring what anybody else thought. No, whatever allowed the good news of gods love to be heard was employed to get the job done.

This influenced every early decision in TSA from the wearing of uniforms to our sacramental view.

There is even an account of an officer to be who came to the founder and said “I wan’t to serve the army in america, but I have a problem with one of the points in the covenant”, to which Booth replied: Which one? And then promptly crossed it out and sent the newly commissioned officer over seas.

The same view was employed in the choice of music and informed the famous “Why should the devil have all the good music?” quote.

This pragmatism also allowed Booth to put unprecedented faith in young people both America and Australia was opened by officers under eighteen. The early army was an unstoppable messy youth movement and could be so by not being hindered by bureaucracy or sticking to any given ruleset.

 

This pragmatism was of course fuelled by Booths passion for and deep love of god and people.

Hearts to god and hands to men

Because of Booths grounding on earth and the here and now it was never a philosofical or intellectual faith but the dirty messy faith of going into the darkest most neglected places to spread light and love.

In Sweden today we have a slogan that goes “Faith is only half of the truth” and lines up neatly with William Booths “heart to god and hands to men”. We may have our hearts set on god and godly things (treasures in heaven) but our bodies remain here and here we will build gods kingdom for god to return to!

Radical inclusion

“Go for souls and go for the least”, everyone and anyone was welcome in TSA, and this really hits home. At Christmas the various churches in London would go out on the highways and byways to claim their own. The methodist would welcome all methodist, the anglicans would welcome all anglicans, and TSA would welcome all who had nowhere else to go.

The statement that “whosoever will may be saved” means just that! TSA is all about the whosoever and the other. The ones that no one else would touch even with a remote control (sorry, bit of an inside joke).

This is my army 

I know that there are other things that where part of the early army, but these are my points that I love about the early movement and the movement we could be! I see a vision of a new Salvation Army that has rekindled this passionate and radical way of life!

 

What’s in a name?

cropped-IMG_0223.jpgThe last week I have been contemplating this question: What does it mean to be a Salvationist? A Salvationist (for those of you who are not in the Salvation Army), is a soldier in the Salvation Army, but what does that mean?

Is being a Salvationist believing certain things or doing certain things?

Let me explain. I have been in love with the Salvation Army since I walked into the SA New Years Youth conference in Malmö, January 2000. I felt lured by god to not only attend but to leave my pastors position at what is now United – Öresundskyrkan and become a Salvationist. At the New Years Youth Conference 2001 I was enrolled together with Hanna to be Soldiers of the Salvation Army by Commissioner Rolf Roos at a deeply moving ceremony in Norrköping.

Since then we have explored what it means being a Salvationist and also what it means being a Christian. We have been challenged, we have grown and our faith has gone through a transformation. During this whole time we have been on an incredible journey. Prompted by our ministry, our experience with people and the army and perhaps most of all by our Officers training at William Booth College in London we have questioned Christianity, our salvation and of course our salvationism. Personally I think it is healthy to critically examine your beliefs and assumptions on a regular basis although not all agree.

At times our salvationism has been questioned. In the beginning we where raving radical charismatic fundamentalist biblicists and that was questioned by the often more liberal Salvation Army. After college we came out post-liberal, emergent, post-modern radical theologians which has been questioned by the often more modern and traditional Salvation Army. However, our love for the army has stayed the same even as our beliefs have changed.

As a Salvation Army Soldier, a Salvationist, you have covenanted yourself to spread the good news of gods radical and unconditional love to everyone but primarily to those that have been marginalised by society. We would call this missio dei, the mission of god: to bring about the kingdom of god or the dream that god dreams for the now and future of this world.

So back to the the question is a salvationist someone who believes certain things or someone who does certain things. Is the covenant a covenant to believe or a covenant to act?

For my part although my beliefs have undergone a major transformation my covenant stays the same: To proclaim that god so loved the world, every single soul, rock, tree, bird and bee. This is good news, acceptance of this love will transform peoples lives, set them free, give them freedom, joy and peace beyond our understanding.

This covenant is unaffected by what I believe or do not believe about the scriptures, about the trinity, about the virgin birth, about marriage, about homosexuality or about other religions.

For me the covenanted life of a salvationist is a covenant to partake in the missio dei. The proclamation of the good news to all of creation. What are your thoughts?

 

Becoming and being all that I am is my calling

True-selfHoliness and calling are two central points of a Salvationist theology. Many books have been written on holiness, most of them describing holiness as a tool to get rid of/become sin free and while many of these books describe holiness as an internal process the result becomes an external system of sin management. As if creating a life where I abstain from sin pleases god.

My own thoughts on holiness have been greatly influenced by Wesley who makes a case for holiness as something closer to wholeness, to recover from brokenness to become perfect not in the sense of becoming flawless and “all that I can be” but in the sense of being all that I am am in this moment, the right person, at the right place in the right time. That is to acknowledge that I may not be finished and I may not have reached the goal but I have come as far as I can at this point in my life and working together with god I have realised (made real) my potential to be what god created me to be as far as possible at this very moment.

The road to holiness is very much an inward Journey, discovering the image of god in me and the my purpose and function in the body so that I can accept who I am and live fully as myself in every moment.

M. Scott Peck states:

”If one ever has the good fortune to meet a living saint , one will have met someone absolutely unique. Through their visions may be remarkably similar, the personhood of saints is remarkably different. This is because they have become utterly themselves ” (M. Scott Peck, The road less travelled)

Similarly Thomas Merton writes:

“For me to be a saint means to be myself. Therefore the problem of sanctity and salvation is in fact the problem of finding out who I am and of discovering my true self … Therefore there is only one problem on which all my existence, my peace and my happiness depend: to discover myself in discovering God. If I find him I will find myself and if I find my true self I will find Him.” (Thomas Merton, New seeds of contemplation).

My calling then and the road towards holiness is to discover this true self and to live out who god says I am, in doing so I will not only find the relief of holiness but I will find godself in my search of myself. While this may feel like a becoming or a transformation of self it is more a being what I already am. All that I was created to be is already within me and there for the discovery if I dare to dismantle the false self (what Paul would call the flesh) and show up as my true self.

Life is my religionBeing alive is my daily spiritual practiceLove is my ruleHumankind is my familyAuthentic friendships is my churchThe kingdom of god runs through my veins.Jesus is my brotherBecoming and being all that I am is my callingHelping you become and be all that you are is my ministryMy deepest feelings is my guideAll living things are my teacher.

 

Jesus is my brother

Who are you in this picture?

It may seem like an obvious thing to say, if god is our father then Jesus is our brother. There are some people (in the past myself included) who may have a problem thinking of themselves on the same level as Jesus. It seems disrespectful towards the son of god and almost blasphemous.

Jesus himself if not denies, downplays his own divinity. More than that, Jesus deconstruvpct the whole notion of family and proclaims a universal brother/sisterhood of humankind. Jesus also elevates his disciples stating that they will do greater things than he has done.

Paul repeatedly teaches that we are now part of god's intimate family and we need to start acting as such.

The Salvation Army General urged the Swedish Salvation Army Officers at an officers gathering in Huskvarna to: “be Jesus in every community”. Early on I saw my ministry along these lines to incarnate Jesus in whatever community I find myself in. During my officers training this was turned upside down for me.

I came as a cadet to my social practice week to Springfield Lodge in London. My line manager asked me what is social work for you? I quickly answered that, being Jesus for these unfortunate souls, was my mission. He then challenged me saying that maybe I needed to do one better. Maybe I needed to see everyone who walked in the door as Jesus.

Maybe we need to realise that when we say that Jesus is our brother, we need to realize that our brother, neighbour, the other is Jesus in our life and we need to learn to see th other as such.

Life is my religion. Being alive is my daily spiritual practice. Love is my rule. Humankind is my family. Authentic friendships is my church. The kingdom of god runs through my veins. Jesus is my brother. Becoming and being all that I am is my calling. Helping you become and be all that you are is my ministry. My deepest feelings is my guide. All living things are my teacher.

 

The kingdom of God runs through my veins

Kingdom-of-GodJesus main message, according to most bible scholars, was that of the kingdom of god, or life eternal (aionos zoe)In most churches this has degenerated into an oversimplified message of “pie in the sky when you die”. When Jesus very clearly describes the kingdom as an event, as something that is about to happen and something that simultaneously has happened. This is the now but not yet that most theologians refer to.

Paul very clearly teaches that the secret (mysterion) of the Christian faith and life is this: Christ in you, the hope of glory. That you (yes, you!) are the temple of god. This is the glorious mystery of the incarnation, that after Jesus leaves, we are not to await his physical return (although that may also happen some day), but to embody Jesus presence, the reality of the kingdom or the life eternal in our everyday.

If life is our religion then the kingdom of god, the abundant/eternal life is a reality that dwells within each and every one of us. Our bodies vibrate with it, our true self is made up of the stuff that the kingdom is built from. It is realised in our relationships to each other, to the planet and it’s eco system.

William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army and a pre-millenialist was a firm believer in building the kingdom of god here and now. He believed as do I that it is truly up to us to embody the kingdom in what we do, how we live and what we say, and the rule for doing this is the rule of love.

When love for god and love for our neighbour pumps through our veins, vibrates through our bodies and radiates from the words that we speak to each other as we live courageously as our selves within the framework of vulnerable authentic relationships, recognising the sacredness of everyone and everything around us, then every moment becomes a sacred sacrament and the kingdom of god is in our midst.

Life is my religionBeing alive is my daily spiritual practiceLove is my ruleHumankind is my familyAuthentic friendships is my churchThe kingdom of god runs through my veinsJesus is my brotherBecoming and being all that I am is my callingHelping you become and be all that you are is my ministryMy deepest feelings is my guideAll living things are my teacher.

What about Radical Salvationism?

Since I attended the conference on Radical Theology – Subvert the norm II, I have been asking myself what would a Radical Salvationism look like?

Then I stumbled across the following quote by Cadet Christopher Footer in JAC Issue #45:

wpid-Photo-19-aug-2011-1320.jpgThere is only one God, and there is only one Salvation Army. That army however is made of many people; and many people have many views. There are traditional Salvationists, Pentecostal Salvationists, radical Salvationists, neo-Salvationists, primitive-Salvationists… The list is endless. The focus of this paper is Primitive Salvationism, however it is important to state from the very beginning that these labels are just that, labels. Not everyone will fit neatly into a ‘Salvationist box’; and even when someone does fit into a box this does not mean they are incapable of stretching beyond the boundaries of that box. These labels should aid us in discovering who we are, and what we stand for; not constrict us from expressing ourselves to our God, and to those around us.

When I saw the labels Radcial Salvationist and Primitive Salvationist I felt a need to explore the difference between these two positions within Salvationism. I agree with Footer that these labels are just that, labels and must not restrict us in how or what we believe about god but must function as starting points for an ongoing conversation of what it means to explore your faith in a Salvationist context.

Since there is no authoritative source on what primitive salvationism or radical salvationism might be I will simply juxtapose some of the distinctives of both agains each other trying to remember all the while that the only real starting position for any salvationist theology is the doctrines of the Salvation Army and those doctrines claim in turn that the scriptures of the old and new testament is the only starting point for any life or practice of a salvationist.

So in trying to imagine what a radical salvationism (I posit here that there has been no real attempt to imagine this before as a cursory googling of the term yields mostly salvationists who by the term radical means extreme or committed salvationism as opposed to the philosophical stream of radicalism) as opposed to a primitive salvationism would look like that seems a good place to start, namely how we read the doctrines and the scriptures. Now I want to right at the beginning apologise for the reductionist way I will portray both modernism and post-modernism and many other concepts that I am well aware are much more complex than a simple blog post could ever do justice, but this is a simple blog post so you will have to restrain yourselves from pointing out that I have oversimplified these concept unless if by doing so I have missed the mark completely in which case: Flame away!

Before we get into the substance of this post, I also want to state that this is far from a finished line of thought. It is more of an experiment, an imaginary what if and a plea for others to consider the implications and submit their thoughts. So please blog about it and link here, comment on here, on twitter and Facebook.

I think the most fundamental difference between primitive and radical salvationism would be one of worldview. Primitive salvationism wholly embraces a modernistic worldview or maybe even a pre-modern victorian or imperialistic worldview. Whereas the radical salvationist perspective would be post-modern. This in turn colours how the two groups would approach and read both the SA Doctrines and the Scriptures of the old and new testament.

Scriptures and doctrines

The primitive salvationist would probably approach scripture as a biblicist and in a modernistic way be prone to treat both the biblical text and the doctrines of TSA as a legal document where you have access to indexed historical and absolute universal truth. It becomes a roadmap with a clear starting point and a decisive ending point. As scripture is viewed as hard truth, doctrines also become non-negotiables but the landmarks of the tradition by which one navigates. I will not be lured to address the inherent difficulties of biblicism but will refer to perhaps “the bible made impossible” by Christian Smith.

A radical salvationist approach would on the other hand be very different. The radical salvationist would approach scripture not as a legal document but rather as an eclectic collection of poetry, narrative, arguments and counter arguments. Maybe as a theological discourse one overhears and then interprets and deconstructs to reach for that which is unattainable, the event harboured in the name of god. Scripture would then not be the answer book of fundamentalism but the starting point for theological conversation and discourse. In a similar way the doctrines would be a starting point for conversation and deconstruction where one would be looking for the event of salvationism. Perhaps the main discourse would be, what is salvation, or the event of salvation and can one truly be saved unless all of creation is redeemed and saved or gathered up into that event which is harboured in the name of god.

The military metaphor

In primitive salvationism the military metaphor is embraced to the n:th degree. In some ways it could be said to be the hallmark of primitive salvationism, however that may be to over-simplify the issue. Primitive salvationism is all about the early leaders of the salvation army and to adhere to their words of wisdom as if they convey a method that transcends time and holds universal truth. Maybe because the early leaders words are saturated with the military metaphor, the metaphor itself becomes central to primitive salvationism.

A radical approach would need to deconstruct the metaphor and find what remains. Perhaps one could go to Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s words and decide that the war we fight is the battle within every heart. Although the most probable outcome would be to discard the military metaphor as a quaint legacy of an imperialistic age and claim that “We are lovers not fighters”. The move then would be towards radical (both as in extreme and in the etymological sense of “to the roots)” social justice and a gospel of grace and love.

Social action

It may be in social action that the primitive salvationist and radical salvationist finally meet, in both approaches there would be a relentless commitment to social justice. The only difference I think is the motivation behind the action.

A primitive salvationist’s primary concern, as I understand it, would be to prepare the way for sharing the gospel. Now that may sound cynical but I truly believe that while love will be a great motivator, the primitive salvationists view on what is the greatest love gift, would be to share the good news of salvation for the soul as it must be if you truly believe in the eternal ongoing punishment of the wicked.

A radical salvationist would after deconstructing salvationism, I think, arrive at a holistic view of salvation where social justice is part of god’s ongoing redeeming and salvific work. Alternatively a radical salvationist view would be that the call to social justice is part of god’s insistence and that, as we are gods incarnation here, it is our work to do.

What is left

With such a radical emphasis on deconstruction and relativising of both depth and surface of salvationism one might ask what is left to form a rallying cry for this group of radical salvationists. What there is, is a relentless commitment to deconstruction. A realisation that what we see in salvationists is not all there is to salvationism. The concept holds something more, something deeper, the event that defies deconstruction. In search of this the radical salvationist will deconstruct, what we do, what we are, what we believe and what it looks like. Knowing that if the god that insists, insists there be a Salvation Army then there is more to that call than what has been articulated in the doctrines and articles of war. There is a truth that stirs, an event hidden in the words we use.

So we call out, not entirely sure what or who it is we call to, and yet we call from depths of our being for the other, come!

Being alive is my daily spiritual practice

IMG_1119What is a spiritual practice, or a spiritual discipline? Most people I know would place a spiritual practice within the confines of what you do on a Sunday in church or possibly in your daily prayer session at home. A subset of my friends would also extend it to their activities in feeding the hungry and serving the poor.

One of the most wonderful aspects of Salvationist theology is the theology that has developed around our view on the sacraments. In Salvo-lingo this is called the sacramental life.

The word sacrament comes from the Latin translation of the Bible (Sacramentum) and is the translation for the greek word mysterion used in Col 1.27 “To them God chose to make known how great among the Gentiles are the riches of the glory of this mystery, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory.” (NRSV)

The most common understanding of the word sacrament that I have seen, is: An outward sign of an inward grace.

This means in most mainline churches that rituals like baptism, the eucarist etc. are outward symbols/rituals/manifestations of the grace we know in the good news of the gospel.

The Salvation Army then takes this a step further saying, there is no ritual holier than any other moment. Life is a sacrament! Life is an outward sign of an inward grace.

For me this means that the mystery, that Christ is alive in me, means that whatever I do is an outward manifestation/symbol/sign of this truth. So here’s the mystery, the sacrament: I am in god because I am alive in this world and this world is in god, but god is in me through Christ. Listen to this beautiful prayer of Jesus: “I ask not only on behalf of these, but also on behalf of those who will believe in me through their word, that they may all be one. As you, Father, are in me and I am in you, may they also be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me. The glory that you have given me I have given them, so that they may be one, as we are one, I in them and you in me, that they may become completely one, so that the world may know that you have sent me and have loved them even as you have loved me.”

Paul says this is the mystery: Christ in me, the hope of glory!

So this means that everytime I:

  • Smile, is an outward sign of the Joy inside
  • Hug someone, is an outward sign of the love inside
  • Forgive someone, is an outward sign of gods grace
  • Dance, is an outward sign of the vibrant life I have been given

Or to say all this a different way, borrowing from Rob Bell: Everything is spiritual! There is no divide between what is church and spiritual practice and what is life. Every breath I take is a miracle of life, every thought, every living moment.

So, being alive is my daily spiritual practice, each moment is a holy moment, each person I encounter a holy person, each place I set my foot a holy place. This means that awareness, gratefulness, celebration, prayer becomes part of each moment.

This means that our daily, mundane lives matter! There is a point where we tend to forget about the here and now because we, as Christians are to focused on the there and then. It may be because we have reduced Jesus life to birth, death and resurrection. We miss out on Jesus entire life of breakfasts, walking through the countryside, fellowship with friends, going to childbirths, weddings and funerals.

So here is the point: Being alive each moment is the point! Being alive is my daily spiritual practice!

Life is my religionBeing alive is my daily spiritual practiceLove is my ruleHumankind is my familyAuthentic friendships is my churchThe kingdom of god runs through my veinsJesus is my brotherBecoming and being all that I am is my callingHelping you become and be all that you are is my ministryMy deepest feelings is my guideAll living things are my teacher.

Love is where the rubber meets the road …

wpid-Photo-12-feb-2012-1655.jpg

I recently received the following IM from one of my soldiers in the corps.

I can’t or don’t want to continue as a Soldier … I feel that I want to fall in love, love and feel loved back. Therefore I wan’t to become an adherent.

Personally this is one of the most heartbreaking messages I have ever received. What is wrong with our organisation, our membership form if one of our members feel they must step down and turn in the uniform so that they may be free to fall in love?

This person is gay, and loves the Salvation Army and respects the organisations rules and regulations. Choosing celibacy no longer feels like a viable option. Adherency, the other membership of the Salvation Army does not have rules and regulations attached to it and therefore functions as a compromise. And so I received this message.

This Soldier is on of the most devout, gentle, spirit filled, loving Christians we have in our corps. I am humbled and overjoyed to have such a beautiful role model of what it means to walk with god and seek god for ones life as a Soldier in my corps.

What would you do, if you where the corps leader? How would you reply?

This makes me feel stronger than ever that we must be able to council LGBTQ persons the same way we do any other member of our church. If another member of my corps would come and say that they longed to fall in love, I would simply say: Good for you, lets pray that you meet the right person. I can’t wait to bless the two of you together. No need to step down or resign. No need to feel bad about it, it is part of ordinary (albeit extraordinary, as it is fantastic to fall in love) life!

So, right or wrong that is what I said.

 

 

Meanwhile in another part of the Salvation Army

The conversation is still going on. Johnny Laird (who kindly posted a blogpost about my article series on LGBTQ) reminded me of this excellent video segment from Just Salvos featuring an interview with Jay Bakker:

I think the most important part of this video clip is the realigning of the LGBTQ issue from a sin issue to a social justice issue. The Salvation army needs to stand with the oppressed and marginalised and not work against human rights (as has been the case at times in the LGBTQ debate).

 

LGBTQ part 9 – The Salvation Army

The problem persists in the Salvation Army, of today. In which way can we include LGBT persons in our fellowship without creating groupings; an A team and a B team? How can the Corps offer (church) membership in the Salvation Army in a positive manner that allows GLBT persons to feel valued, appreciated and loved by both the corps fellowship (soldiers/adherents) and also by the God to Whom the fellowship is showing (leading) the way.

Somewhere in this discussion one must remember that the Salvation Army has traditionally been the spokesperson for the marginalized. GLBT persons with Christian beliefs are often ‘doubly marginalized’. They are both excluded from the Christian community because of their sexual orientation, but often also excluded from the LGBTQ community due their grounding in the Christian faith.
In the Salvation Army soldiership is in itself problematic; we apply vague/weak and double morality standards concerning the various ‘offenses’ that exclude one from soldiership status. It appears that as it concern this there are several different options from which to choose.
Firstly, we can say that the soldiership is open to all regardless of lifestyle and it is up to each one who enters in to soldiership will to their best ability seek to interpret God’s will and live a pure and holy life. This solution makes it possible for LGBTQ persons to become soldiers and makes civilians membership (adherents) quite unnecessary. This solution (interpretation/ reading) on the other hand, allows for alcoholics, smokers, gamblers, people who abuse pornography, to become soldiers as well. Then it falls on the local pastor (an officer with the gift of pastoring or BOS – Board of Spiritual Care) to guide each one, in good faith, to a whole life (integrity) before God.
Secondly, we insist that the soldiership is a lifestyle choice, (as it’s defined and appears today) one not compatible with LGBTQ persons who choose to live out their sexuality. If one chooses this path one must also ensure that soldiership is also observed in all other respects. Adherent membership is offered today (as an alternative) to others seeking a corps community membership. (But then one should probably review the wording of the description of Adherency, see below)
Thirdly, one can select to remove the soldiership status and instead simply have a membership status where holiness is not a requirement but rather (a fellowship) wherein faith in Jesus is what unites us and binds us together. In common with the first solution this places responsibility on the local pastor who will engage with each member working out what this means individually in every person’s life.
With regard to Adherency membership, (Existing civilian membership) this is already problematic. The (Swedish) leaflet explaing Adherence membership reads; “Civilian membership is full membership in the Salvation Army as a Christian community.” It further states; “Being a member means you are offered corps’ ceremonies (are freely available) such as baby blessings/dedications, confirmations, weddings and funerals.” This means that a LGBTQ person as a civilian member is promised the offer of both a marriage ceremony and baby dedication.
Of course one can argue that according to the SA a marriage not a marriage unless it is between a man and a woman but do we not then do exactly what the SA was accused of in the TV show Cold Facts: come with empty words; everyone is treated equally. This especially given the fact that the marriage ceremony is not instituted explicitly in the Bible but is rather, a tradition we have added to the Bible through methodical exegesis and our normal hetero interpretation of the scriptures
In addition, marriage is enshrined as one of our inalienable human rights in the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (Http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml # A16)
Without any exaggeration it can be said that the Salvation Army is facing a huge assignment regardless of the route one choose to take in the future relative to LGBTQ issues. If we as a denomination want to take a more positive inclusive approach it requires repentance and thorough, in-depth, strategic Bible teaching at all levels.
If we choose to go in the other direction it requires ransacking, repentance and a culling of the current soldiers and officers in order to resolve what we in our Orders and Regulations say that we stand for.

What is clear is that we as a denomination have to initiate a debate and bring this discussion to all levels, both in public and within the corps walls, both on the local level and the cabinet (SA leadership council).

If we as the Salvation Army want to be both open to embrace the oppressed and continue to be a holiness movement, we must engage in lengthy and giving discussions about how we should live in and manage the tension between these concepts.
Lt. Patrik Olterman
Malmo, Sweden
Translation: Dr. Sven Ljungholm
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